Nata 鉈

My Introduction to the Nata

Many years ago (about 15~) in my days of obsessively playing the Tenchu series of video games, I was exploring every nick-and-cranny of all the levels, and in one of the levels that took place in the mountain-top Buddhist monastery, I noticed a small detail where there was this sort of chopping blade sticking out of a block of wood just like a hatchet might.

A few years later I became quite interested in this short battle royal type of anime and manga called Basilisk: Kouga Ninpou Cho (and later the novel that it came from). In it I was drawn to  a character named Yashamaru from the Iga clan, and besides his distinct long-distance fighting style, he also carried as similar short cleaver, though between the three forms of media he never uses it, in the anime adaptation he does draw it so that you can see the angle and length (screen shots provided in the slideshow below.

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Finally, in around 2008, when I started to take studying Japanese and the ninja more seriously, I acquired a copy of the Shinobi Hiden (or Ninpiden), and before even having a translated copy, I knew what the illustration I was looking at was.

Etymology

I have seen two different ways to write Nata: the first seems to be the most common way 鉈, and seemingly less common way, 屶.

The first, the dictionary tends to translate as “hatchet”, but that is an evident transliteration to English based on it’s general use. However, when we break the radicals apart we find “stretch” (它) and “metal” (金). In my mind, this gives the image of a simple elongated piece of metal; which could stretch back in history  as a tool quite some ways.

The seal script of the kanji 會

The second way, I cannot recall where I got the kanji from initially, but a quick google search shows the very same tool. One doesn’t need a dictionary to see that this kanji easily breaks down  to “mountain” (山) and “blade” or “sword” (刀), so some form of mountain blade (see the Tenchu reference above). However, the Japanese dictionaries that I have don’t have this character. Instead, Wiktionary shows that , is a variant form of . So in looking at that…

The relevant seal inscription form (see image to the right) is a variant form (through phonosemantics) of 介 “reduce” and 曾 “pile” or  “mass” (That’s a bit of an adventure on how it gets there, but current dictionary’s go in a different direction as usual). Thus this character can refer to reducing a pile of something.

Interestingly, 會, which has come to refer to “reducing the space between things”, and as such nowadays means something like “gathering”, “to meet”, etc., and is usually simplified to “awasu” or “awaseru” (会).

Nata in the Shinobi Hiden

shinobi-hiden-ninpiden-tetsu-nata
The “Testsu” (鉄), found in the second volume of the Shinobi Hiden.

In the Shinobi Hiden, it is listed as a “Tetsu” or “Kurogane” (鉄), which basically means “Iron”. I’m not yet sure if the name changed at some point, but the common term for it is currently a “Nata” (鉈), referring to something like a hatchet.

In the Shinobi Hiden, it primarily details the proportions and materials used for it and it’s scabbard. It is even detailed at the end that a hole should be in the end of the scabbard and a “thieves gimbal lantern” can be attached.

What can be inferred

A point of interest is that it details to “Be sure the iron blade is well forged. Do this in case it is used in place of a sword, and thus the blade is of the most importance.” (Cummins, 2011). Though there is a growing opinion that the ninja would not have their own martial art, one can note that a machete or hatchet handles very differently from a sword or spear. As a result, in order to treat this tool as a sword, the biomechanics of ones martial tradition would have to allow for more than a familiarity with swords, spear, halberds, etc. but also a unity of combative methodology between any weapon.

This is precisely what we see in traditions such as Gyokko-ryu, Koto-ryu, Togakure-ryu, and similar traditions that have some part of their history in the Iga region of Japan.

Conclusion

It is important to remember that though such a tool can be weaponized, it is not in itself a weapon and is to this day used by foresters and gardeners alike. Used like both that of a hatchet and a machete. I have herd several accounts now of North American outdoors-men (and women) now preferring the Nata over that of their choppers or hatchets for their every day use.

How the Nata ended up being associated with the ninja in a few video games and anime is honestly beyond me, but for those guys dressed up in black masks and running through the bush with their Filipino machetes, this would be the direction that they would want to go.

Sources

  • The Ninpiden – True Ninja Traditions: And the Unknown Ninja Scroll
  • Etymological Dictionary of Han/Chinese Characters. By Lawrence J. Howell, Research Collaborator Hikaru Morimoto

 

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Munen Muso 無念夢想

Often ‘Shugyôsha’ (修行者), or those engaged in an intensive physical or mental practice, often refer to the phrase ‘munen musô’ (無念無想). The idea of ‘munen musô’ is to make oneself free of worldly thoughts and desires. However, the term ‘munen musô’ is not what describes a correct state of mental unity. The reason is that within ‘munen musô’ is a concept known as ‘Boga no Kyo’, or a state of forgetting the self.

In other words, ‘munen musô’ is exactly the meaning of the four ‘kanji’ that make up the phrase. They are: 無 No – 念 Desire – 無- No – 想 Thought. Further, unification of the mind by eliminating the myriad and unending onslaught of ideas and thoughts as taught in various doctrines of religion and cultural programming is nothing like the unity of mind and spirit found in a true ‘Heihôsha’ (兵法者), or one engaged in the intensive practice of the subtle methods of combat and military strategy. True unity of mind and spirit is the state of utter selflessness and intensive singular focus.

 

Sourced from HERE

The Shukō of Togakure-ryū

Introduction

In the Bujinkan organization’s vast collection of teachings, techniques, and tools, there are a wide assortment of unusual weapons and tools that have been adopted, adapted, and re-purposed to fit new needs and intentions. This isn’t new for the martial arts, a tertiary glance at Okinawan martial arts will illustrate that. However, one of the more exotic and supposedly specialized tools has a great wealth of mystery and misconceptions – the shukō.

This is a highly misunderstood tool that has had much of it’s qualities exaggerated, and even it’s place in history re-shaped to fit many people’s conceptions and ideals of farmer-warriors and the ninja. Some of the things that are misunderstood:

  • The shukō are unique to ninjutsu,[1]
  • The name means “tiger hands” (手虎),[1]
  • The shukō were designed for climbing trees,
  • and so on…

In regards to these things, they aren’t always easy to source, but they do tend to have a certain logic about them so I’ll peel them off quickly: The notion that the shukō are unique to the ninja don’t generally make much sense as anything visibly unique to the ninja would simply give up one’s cover; as such, like many such interesting tools, they originate in agricultural practices (elaborated on later).

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The name means “hand hooks” (手鉤) not “tiger hands” (手虎), though a viable homonym, there are literally no reputable sources for this way of writing the name. One may take some artistic license in regards to such things, and the connection is an easy one to make, but neither the history of the tool, nor any prevalent sources support this. One source that we can look to is in Takamatsu Toshitsugu‘s own writing, one of the densho of the Togakure-ryū (see the above slideshow), where by his hand, it is written 手鉤. This kanji is also reproduced in Masaaki Hatsumi‘s “Way of the Ninja” (page 48).

History

The foundation and evolution of the shukō begins in the agricultural fields of ancient Japan around the Kofun period (c. 250 CE – 538 CE), when the establishment of iron tools really started to take hold in rural Japan. At this time, the source tools we can find is that of the Asakagi (fiber hook; 麻鉤), also called the tekagi (with the same spelling as shukō; 手鉤), used for hooking bails of straw, hay, wheat, and in early times, bundles of rice, for manual moving and transportation.

There was also the Asanō (shallow agriculture; 浅農), a three-to-five pronged claw on a shaft, used for hand plowing gardens and smaller crops. This could also be used for the same purpose as the above mentioned asakagi in moving bails of various horticulture product.

Quite a while later, during the Heian period (794 – 1185 CE), there was a certain merger to this tool in certain regions of Japan[2]. At this point, the development of the tekkō kagi (claws that cover the hand; 手甲鉤) can be seen (source waiting for release [3]). This was used similar to that of a pitch-fork, a tool used for scooping up hay, straw, and wheat manually.

Sometime in the Sengoku period (1467 – c. 1603) certain regions developed a variation of the tekkō kagi, but with the hooks worn on the inside of the palms, often with cloth or leather sleeves similar in use to chaps in order to protect the bare skin from whatever produce was being handled (see figure 3). This allowed better leverage and handling when lifting and moving bails (koku; 石) of rice by hand. The version made popular by Togakure-ryū ninjutsu is made of a metal band that wraps the palm, and a wrist band. The hooks are located on the inside of the palm (see figure 2).

evolution-of-the-shuko
(Figure 2) Evolution of the shukō
1-hokusai_rice_cultivation
(Figure 3) The use of shukō and manipulation of rice bails by Katsushika Hokusai (葛飾 北斎, 1760 – 1849).

Usage

Within the martial arts of Togakure-ryū ninjutsu, there are three particular ways to go about it:

  1. Applying this to augment one’s unarmed fighting (taijutsu; 体術),
  2. Usage for fleeing techniques (Taijutsu Ukemi Gata; 体術受身型),
  3. Kata that are specifically made to utilize shukō (Santō Tonkō Gata; 鼠逃遁甲型)

With Taijutsu

The first approach, and most common one it seems, is to explore one’s taijutsu while wearing shukō. This, however, requires that you understand the qualities of the tool. For example, one can assume that you could simply slap the enemy with the claws and have some exciting results. However, what then happens when the claws get stuck in bone? Now this slows you down; this is also where one can quickly see where this was a tool before it was a weapon – the hooks are designed for fibrous produce, not human… consumption.

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Instead, one uses the weight of the metal band and the shape of it in various ways, while moving in an exceptionally light way[4], including changing how one delivers strikes. the forms of boshiken (thumb fist; 拇指拳), shutō (edge of hand; 手刀), and even fudoken (clenched fist; 不動拳) are forced to change to accommodate the shape of the shukō. As such the following gokui is relevant:

Sutemi also contains a sense of moving as though empty handed,
even while holding a tool.

– Masaaki Hatsumi

Ukemi Gata

The second way draws from the more acrobatic section of Togakure-ryū, from the Togakure-ryū ninjutsu hidensho (戸隠流忍術秘傳書), which is shown in Figure 1 above. This details some vague forms of evading sword attacks and takes into account matters such as striking the opponents vitals with the metal band of the shukō as well as using it to catch a sword blade in the hands and hoist the weapon away from the enemy.

The Escape Forms

Finally, there is the Santō Tonkō gata (鼠逃遁甲型) found in the Shinjin Ichinyo no maki (神人一如之巻)[5]. This writing lays out the primary techniques of the shukō, shuriken (throwing blades; 手裏剣), and metsubushi (blinding powder; 目潰し). These forms are derived from Hajutsu (破術)[6], and deal with dire situations where one is detected and forced into combat. This is different from conventional kata dealing with the defeat of the enemy in that these kata detail how to escape from various grabs, stun or weaken the enemy and flee or hide.

the second section deals with being unarmed (or with shukō and various other tools) while facing an armed assailant. These techniques again don’t necessarily deal with killing the enemy, but stunning or disabling, and then fleeing or hiding.

The third section is regarding situations where you are discovered, cornered, and outnumbered. Then things like stones, metsubushi, and misdirection is deployed in order to survive and escape.

togakure-ryu-santo-tonko-shinjin-ichinyo
Figure 4. Shinjin Ichinyo no Maki (神人一如), containing the Togakure-ryū Santo Tonko Gata – including usage of the Shukō, Shuriken, and mitsubishi.

Conclusion

As can be seen above, although certain groups have weaponized this uncommon farm implement, it is not inherently a weapon. Shukō are not weapons for war, they are soto no mono (improvised weapons; 外の物), but before being a weapon, it was a tool for carrying things on the back. So a warrior or samurai who is working in the fields is suddenly attacked by somebody and he used the tools by accident. That is to say the shukō wasn’t something you necessarily carried (though see the photos at the end of this article to see how they were carried), unless that was a planned thing.

And the techniques involved further exemplify this, as well as a very important gokui of Togakure-ryū:

抜かず勝て、抜けば切るたよ、ただ忍べ、命をたるは大事とぞ知れ

Win without drawing; if you must draw, don’t cut. Just forebear. Know that it is a grave thing to take a life.

Sources:

footnotes:

[1] It has been stated in other sources across the Internet, but here is an example where a notable amount of misinformation has been cast. I don’t know where this information comes from, but according the “About” page, it is linked to To-shin-do. I emphasize that this is not a slight against Stephen Hayes at all, but the information has been clearly inaccurate.

[2] Even in North America, though notably later (circa 16th century), I personally can attest to seeing tools similar to the Tekkō kagi for the purpose of moving handfuls of hay and straw before the bundling of hay bails with large scooping movements, having grown up on a horse farm in an French Acadian family (the initial European settlers of the country to be known as Canada).

[3] I have translated several primary sources on commission, and this is one such one that is under a confidentiality clause; it is regarding agricultural tools and their usage during the Kamakura (1185–1333) or Muromachi (1336–1573) periods. I can say that this is a long gap in history, and there was tremendous developments and improvements in metallurgy during this time as there has always been two major influences in historical development: military, and entertainment – in this case the Sengoku jidai (warring states period) stretched from 1467 to 1603; a very long time, but a very scientifically influential time.

[4] “Smooth is slow; slow is hidden.” (滑らかさは遅いです、遅いが隠されている。)

[5] This particular scroll teaches not only the fighting techniques of the tradition, but also the philosophical principles of “harmonizing with nature”, that is to say, Shinjin Ichinyo. As I have explained elsewhere, the notion of the kami (神) in the Shinto faith, are like the manifestations of the elements of nature; and like that, this scroll teaches how to escape and hide with the five phases (gogyo; 五行) as inspiration. As such, learning to rely on and harmonize (become one with) the phases of nature is becoming one with the kami.

[6] “Hajutsu no hō is a very violent method of combat, which requires a deep understanding of the human anatomy as well as the ability to move with fluidity. Hajutsu no hō allows the practitioner, among other things, to incorporate the use of the various types of weapons. It encompasses the likes of kosshi-jutsu and koppō jutsu, the art of kyūsho (急所) and kyūsho (求所 or 救所). Here, the two words have the same sound, but the characters are different. They are complementary sciences, which shows why kosshi-jutsu and koppō-justsu were always transmitted together.” (Zoughari pp 77)

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And here’s the TL;DR version:

Togakure-ryu Happo Hiken 戸隠流八法秘剣

My teacher (Takamatsu toshitsugu) once described ninjutsu to me (Masaaki Hatsumi) as follows: “It is said that ninja knew all the martial ways. In each, they would undergo at least the minimum training essential to their life as a ninja. They would study the eight branches of the Ninja Hachimon (忍者八問): Ninja kiai (energy harmonization), Koppotaijutsu, Ninpo swordwork, spearwork, Shuriken, fire, traditional arts, and general knowledge.”

In other words, life of a Shinobi started with the Ninja hachimon. Over time, however, this changed so that greater weight was placed on Happo Hiken. the Shinobi Happo Hiken consists of the following:

  1. Taijutsu, Hichojutsu, nawa-nage (body skills and rope throwing)
  2. Karate Koppojutsu Taijutsu, Jutaijutsu (unarmed fighting)
  3. Sojutsu, naginatajutsu (spar and halberd arts)
  4. Bojutsu, Jojutsu, Hanbojutsu (staff and stick arts)
  5. Senban nage, Ken Nagejutsu, Shuriken (throwing blades)
  6. kajutsu, Suijutsu (use of fire and water)
  7. Chikujou Gunryaku Hyoho (military fortification, strategy and tactics.)
  8. Onshinjutsu (concealment)

The branches listed above were known as Happo (eight methods), and were supplemented by Hikenjutsu (secret sword arts; 秘剣), in other words, the shinobi sword, kodachi, jutte, and tessen, to complete the Ninja Happo Hiken.

In later periods, the term Togakure-ryu Juhakkei was also used. the eighteen forms of the Shinobi were defined as [above… ]. These were obliterated (破) by, or rather concealed within, the Bugei Juhappan (武芸十八般), thereby escaping through transformation into thirty-six forms: discretion became the better part of valor. In a sense, the evolved into the thirty-six Togakure strategies , the Kuji (九字) of the Santo Tonko (鼠逃遁甲) techniques, and even the Juji (十字) principle of bonding with the divine.

In fact, Ninja did not simply learn all forms of martial arts through their training: they continued studying until they reached a level far beyond mere technical prowess. [1]

Togakure ryu Happo Hiken
Buhi Kanjin Kaname no maki (武秘神眼要巻) – Togakure-ryu Happo Hiken 戸隠流八法秘剣

Notes

[1] Masaaki Hatsumi. Way of the Ninja. (2004). p. 21-22.

Ninja Juhakkei 忍者十八形

Ninja Jūhakkei (the eighteen disciplines; 忍者十八形) were first identified in the scrolls of Togakure-ryū 戸隠流, or “School of the Hidden Door”, founded during the Oho period (1161–62) by one Daisuke Nishina (Togakure), who learned a life view and techniques (ninjutsu) from Kagakure Doshi[1]. Togakure ryu Ninjutsu Hidensho[2] is a manuscript in Hatsumi’s possession that is said to document Togakure-ryū. It is the purported origin of the “18 skills of Ninjutsu.”

Ninja jūhakkei was often studied along with Bugei jūhappan (the 18 samurai fighting art skills). Though some techniques were used in the same way by both samurai and ninja, others were used differently by the two groups. The 18 disciplines are:

  1. Seishinteki kyōyō (spiritual refinement)
  2. Koppojutsu Tajutsu (unarmed combat)
  3. Kenpo (Swordsmanship)
  4. Bōjutsu (longstaff)
  5. Shuriken (throwing blades)
  6. Kusarigama (chain and sickle
  7. Yari (spear)
  8. Naginata (halbred)
  9. Bajutsu (horsemanship)
  10. Suiren (water training)
  11. Kayakujutsu (pyrotechnics)
  12. Hōryaku (tactics)
  13. Chōhō (espionage)
  14. Shinobi-iri (Infiltration)
  15. Inton (Concealment)
  16. Hensōjutsu (disguise)
  17. Tenmon (meteorology)
  18. Chi-mon (geography)

Notes:

[1] Hatsumi, Massaki. (1988). Essence of Ninjutsu. McGraw-Hill. pg. 173

[2] Here, “hidensho” simply refers to the secret manuscripts of Togakure-ninjutsu. In this particular case, it is referring to Buhi Kanjin Kanami no Maki (武秘神眼要巻). This particular scroll serves as a sort of mokuroku for the Togakure-ryu, and has been made publicly available in Masaaki Hatsumi’s publication “The Complete Ninja: The Secret World Revealed” (2013, p. 98-99).

buhi-kanjin-kaname-no-maki
Buhi Kanjin Kaname no Maki 武秘神眼要巻

 

Totoku Hyoshi 刀匿礮姿

Tōtoku Hyōshi 姿

In the photo the Sōke of Bujinkan dōjō performs 刀匿礮姿 – Tōtoku Hyōshi, that is to use the sword as a shield against attack of outside or inside, this can be understood inside the Kobujutsu (古武術) as Naka-zumi (中墨) , Shinmyō-ken (神妙剣) or Seichū-sen (正中线). Basically it is the concept of maintaining a center-line with your being, with your body and with the tools that life has to offer, inside of sanshin (三心) this sanshin is an attitude of the being in spite of the external or INTERNAL circumstances (omote and ura / 表裏).

For this there is necessary the transmission and the practice of a corporal attitude of the being inside the one, the unity (一), From the unity to the multiplicity

Shūmoku (撞木), Hitoe (偏身), Ichimonjigoshi (一文字腰), Hanmi (半身) and Ichimonji (一文字) are some of the terms used in the kobujutsu for this corporal attitude inside the science of the art of the war (the art of the peace).

There are multiple guards, but only one guard will give us the victory over ourselves and our reflections projected on the outside.
masaaki-hatsumi-totoku-hyoshi
What time is it? Now.
Where are you? Here.
Who are you? This moment.
Everything is in one, in the unity (一).

From the humility of one advancing to zero.

 

Chujitsu – Fidelity

Since the popular series, Game of Thrones (GoT) has recently concluded it’s sixth season, this is the time that Ibinge through the whole season. Of the multiple storylines, one of the more popular ones is that of Arya Stark, who appears to be apprenticing as an assassin of sorts.

Her training appears to be a rather intense, full time discipline of psychological drilling and physical adversity, in the process she has had her sight taken away from her, she’s starved, participated in embalming of the dead, and so on.

One of the more interesting excercises is where she seems to appear to be getting disciplined in the art of deception and lying. However, as of episode 4 of season 6 (as shown in the video below), it appears to be more that she is being instructed on how to be more truthful; a very important aspect of ninjutsu.

While watching the scenes, we see young Arya Stark get beaten every time that she is caught lying. Naturally it would make sense to simply become a better lier. However, we get a bit of a glimpse into the nature of this excercise, in regards to the partialness of her response regarding “The Hound”. From this perspective of this excercise, it seems strikingly similar to what is written in the Bansenshukai, in the Chapter on Seishin (Crrect mind):

Fidelity means having only truth but nothing false or wrong in the mind. If you pretend to be true-hearted but are wrong or have half-truths deep in your heart, it is not fidelity. Fidelity is a principle of earth, in terms of the Chinese doctrine of the Five Elements. As every season has a doyo period (The phase between seasons), benevolence, righteousness or loyalty should have fidelity within them. Without fidelity inside, then these elements will not be as they should be.

In this light, the other three elements of Benevolence, Righteusness, and Loyalty in the same source seems to become notably more relate to when considering Arya Starks story line…

Reemmber, if you are unable to be completely true and transparent with yourself, you cannot respectfully deceive your enemy – the ego.

Slovenia 2012 Togakure-ryu

It was a very special seminar, that celebrated the 10th anniversary of Kacem visiting and teaching seminars in Slovenia, with the theme of Togakure-ryū (戸隠流) and Naginata (薙刀).

Togakure-ryū (戸隠流)

The Santō Tonkō no Kata (鼠逃遁甲の型) was taught and explored through the technique of Migi Kata Ude Tonsō no Kata (片腕遁走之型) .  Kacem starts with the original version and touches briefly on the Tanren (鍛錬) and understanding the Rhythm of the movement.  The densho version is then broken down into the concepts of Hachimonji no Kamae (八文字 ) and Take Ori  (竹折 ) in progressions allowing for better learning and understanding of the technique more fully.

Naginata (薙刀)

The section of Naginata started off with the practice of Kamae and briefly entered a section of teaching Kamae gata. From there the technique Zengo kiri/Do giri (前後霧/胴切) was shown in its original form.  Again Kacem broke down the one technique with a series of smaller techniques and a progression of techniques that emphasized each of the various Kamae.  Once more this was a very nice way to teach and show the real possibility of the densho technique.

To see more of this, visit Onmitsu Kage for the seminar footage!

Ninja no Shokumotsu (Diet of the Ninja; 忍者の食物)

“It is said that humans have grown weaker since we have started to eat cooked food. Shinobi no mono would normally eat unpolished, brown rice, but white rice when fighting. This is not simply becasue white rice is easier to digest but it also stems from the fact that white rice was seen as a symbol of victory.

While the martial arts contains Omote (overt; 表) techniques and Ura (covert; 裏) techniques, the Ninja diet has three sides to it: Omote, Ura, and (the void; 空). The Ura technique encourages the practitioners to fill the Void with anything they can, and to eat unbalanced, strange, possibly ‘disguised’ food. Leading a deliberately irregular life also helps you to cultivate a sense of balance for different time zones (like those on shift work). When undercover, Ninja might spend long periods unable to soak up the sun, and they would therefore train to be “night owls.” Ordinary people tend to regard such unorthodox lifestyles as indicating failure, but the Ninja were in control of their own lives, and their spiritual powers of endurance helped them perfect the skills needed to transform the unconventional into commonplace activities. Whenever I travel around the world giving guidance in Ninpō Taijutsu, I never have any problems with jet lag or unusual food. Unlike many, I actually relish such experiences.

Having a healthy everyday diet is still the foundation on which one should build the kind of body which will help one’s Taijutsu grow. Above all, I recommend eating plenty of vegetables. The Ninja Kihon Happō diet consists of brown rice, tōfu, sesame, miso soup, no salt, no sugar, uncooked food, and colored vegetables. The brown rice can be roasted on a stone using sunlight. The other important thing is to eat everything, without preference or fussiness. Moreover, you should enjoy your food – and chew it well. This is useful for recovering from mental and physical fatigue.

Soldiers at war used to be fed military rations who’s three principles constituents were soya beans, brown rice, and pickled plums. Soya beans in particular are known as the “warrior’s food” or “magic food,” as they can be transformed into miso, soya sauce, and tōfu. In recent years, people all over the world have started using soya sauce and eating tōfu and brown rice, possibly becasue they have recognized this principle.”

Source:

Hatsumi, Masaaki. Way of the Ninja: Secret Techniques. (2004). pp. 109-10. ISBN 9-784770-028051

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